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The Proverbs 31 Woman: A Woman of Valor

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You have probably have heard “a woman of virtue” and a “woman of noble character,” but did you know that is not an accurate translation of the Proverbs 31 Woman? A more accurate translation should be, “a woman of valor.” Let’s take this step by step to find out why.

Problems with Incorrect Translations of Proverbs 31

Bad translations can lead women to be shortchanged in their understanding of womanhood and in the process, many are left feeling less than worthy and worse, they have been afraid to use their gifting to its maximum potential. The church is overlooking, undervaluing, and underusing women and all because of bad teaching if we want to be honest.

Why do I call it bad teaching? Well, we have taken our western values, traditions, and ideas and superimposed it on the Biblical text instead of reading the text for what it is and/or reading it in the context of Middle Eastern culture and history. Such is the case with Proverbs 31.  I am not the first one to write on this, but I hope as more women do their own research and present their findings, we can have a more honest discussion using both the male AND female perspectives.

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The Hebrew Word Chayil in Proverbs 31

When we look for a definition of womanhood, we quickly flip our Bibles to Proverbs 31. This is a woman who is highly praised and so it seems like the logical place to start. Note that this is not a study that is going to take Proverbs 31 verse by verse. Instead, I want to first focus on the verse that sets the tone for the entire section of scripture and then talk a little about the context. I want to lay out the framework and then let you take it verse by verse. The first verse of this acrostic poem is Proverbs 31:10.

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“An excellent wife who can find? She is far more precious than jewels.” Proverbs 31:10 ESV

Women are being shortchanged in their understanding of womanhood and in the process many are left feeling less than worthy and worse, they have been afraid to use their gifting to its maximum potential. Click To Tweet

The term excellent as found in the ESV is also as translated as noble character, virtuous, worthy, and good in other English versions of the Bible. (I looked at fourteen versions to be exact by doing a quick survey in the Blue Letter Bible ). In other words, when you read this verse in your English Bible you will likely walk away with the idea that this ideal woman is virtuous and/or noble. Unfortunately, that is not what the verse is talking about at all.

Related Article: How Jesus Empowered Women

These words (excellent, noble, virtuous) are translated from the ancient Hebrew word pronounced as “chayil.”  Chayil is what appears in the ancient versions of the manuscripts the Bible is based on. It is the Hebrew word that was used to render our current English translation. The problem? It is erroneously translated. Why do I know this? Because by looking at how this same word is translated in other parts of the Bible, it doesn’t even come close to excellent nor noble nor virtuous.

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The True Meaning of a Chayil Woman

If you click here, you will find a Biblical outline of how this word chayil is translated throughout the Bible. It is translated as army 56 times, as man of valor 37 times, as host 29 times (as in a military host that is), as forces 14 times, as valiant 13 times, as strength 12 times, as riches 11 times, as wealth 10 times, and so on. The Gesenius’ Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon says that the meaning of this word is strength, power, might (especially warlike), and valor. Below are some examples of how chayil is translated in other sections of scripture.

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Chayil in Other Parts of the Bible

II Chronicles 17:17  Of Benjamin: Eliada, a mighty man of valor [chayil], with 200,000 men armed with bow and shield. ESV

Exodus 14:9 The Egyptians pursued them, all Pharaoh’s horses and chariots and his horsemen and his army [chayil], and overtook them encamped at the sea, by Pi-hahiroth, in front of Baal-zephon. ESV

II Samuel 17:10 Then even the valiant [chayil] man, whose heart is like the heart of a lion, will utterly melt with fear, for all Israel knows that your father is a mighty man, and that those who are with him are valiant [chayil] men. ESV

Do you see the disconnect with the English translations of Proverbs 31:10?

Chayil is a Military Term

Proverbs 31:10 is not talking about an excellent or noble wife. It is talking about a strong, valiant, or even warrior-like wife. Not that there is anything wrong with being excellent or noble or virtuous. Those are all good things but we have to be true to the scripture and interpret the verse in light of what it is actually saying. And the use of a military term here resonates with another military-like term used to refer to women during the Creation.

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See my Related Article, What is the Role of Women?, Defining Help Meet.

When I first discovered this, it had a tremendous impact on me. It redefined how I view myself as a woman and how I would raise my daughters. Yes, I want them to grow up showing the love of Christ and having noble and virtuous qualities. But I also want them to be strong, brave, and warrior-like in their faith and spiritual walk. I want them to be tenacious and bold. I want them to be chayil women, women of valor.

Proverbs 31:10 is not talking about an excellent or noble wife. It is talking about a strong, valiant, or even warrior-like wife. Click To Tweet

Proverbs 31 Was Not Written for Women

Although as Christian women we consider this “our” section of scripture, the reality is that a woman gave the sage advice found in Proverbs 31 to a man, a mother to her son to be exact. As we learn early on in verse 1, a mother taught these are oracles to her son King Lemuel. This was first brought to my attention in a blog I read, Eshet Chayil: A Hebraic Perspective, as I researched this topic. There are also commentaries that agree with the view that the intended audience was a man.

Why does this matter? Because as women, when we read everything that the Proverbs 31 woman was able to do, we sometimes get discouraged and feel like there is no way that we can live up to that list. She was a businesswoman, she planted her own fields, she gave to the poor, and so on. It is overwhelming to think about. However, rest easy women, the point of this section of scripture is not about how we are to live up to it (although there is certainly lots of wisdom to be gleaned from it). Rather, I believe that the point is for men to appreciate all those God-fearing women do.

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This takes us back to the word chayil. God doesn’t do anything half-heartedly. Every word in scripture has a purpose and a place. This poem about this woman, written for a man, was spirit-inspired and made it into our Bibles for a reason. Why would God use this military word chayil that was usually used to refer to men of war? What would a man reading this get out of it?

Chayil is a Word a Warrior King Could Understand

As I meditated and prayed through these questions, I thought of my husband. He is a retired Marine. He is a man’s man. Men easily gravitate to him. Why? I think it is the warrior in him. I also thought about the men that produce awe in my husband. They are the valiant warriors. They are the guys that will battle through enemy riddle streets against all odds. They are the Chesty Pullers and the Chris Kyles of the world. As a student of war, I have also found that warriors are bound to other warriors and King Lemuel was likely a warrior. Out of necessity, kings from that time frame usually were seasoned men of war.

So here is this king who most likely understands the warrior’s heart. He receives a poem from his mother that refers to a highly praised woman as a valiant woman, as a chayil woman. Why? Because the intent is to get the king to appreciate this woman and her efforts to the same degree that he would value any mighty man of war. That what this woman does day in and day out is just as brave and valiant as a soldier in the midst of war. Ladies, if that doesn’t give you goosebumps, I don’t know what will.

If you ever wondered if God notices what you do, reading Proverbs 31 should put that to rest. He wants men to see you and give you the same value that they would give their war brothers. God sees you, the woman that loves Him, that fights for her family, her church, her community, as valiant, and strong, and a warrior.

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Digging Deeper into Proverbs 31

Now that I have laid out this framework it is time for an exercise. I invite you to reread Proverbs 31 with your new understanding of the meaning of the word chayil. The word appears at the beginning in Proverbs 31:10 but also towards the end in Proverbs 31:29. All of her works are encapsulated by these two verses that speak of her valor and strength. (Feel free to also read my blog on Proverbs 31:17, Woman, Gird Up Your Loins.) With that in mind consider the following questions.

Proverbs 31 Study Questions

How does the true meaning of chayil change your understanding of this section of scripture?

How does knowing that this poem was written for a man change your perception of this section of scripture?

As you read the poem, what in each verse demonstrates her strength and valor?

Do you see other military terminology used? Where?

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Do some of these other verses in Proverbs 31 now take on a different light?

—Which ones?

—And how?

How does it change how you view yourself as a woman and a wife?

If you have daughters, how does this change how you want to raise your daughters?

—Does it change how you want them to see themselves?

I am interested in your thoughts! Please comment below!

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24 thoughts on “The Proverbs 31 Woman: A Woman of Valor”

  1. God bless you, sister! I came of age in the 1970s and received all of that bad teaching. Since the 1990s, I’ve generally just ignored this chapter of Proverbs because I knew our understanding of it was out of sync with God’s view of women, but didn’t know how, even though I own and use a concordance. Even talking about this triggers all those sickening emotions. Yuck! Thank you for this in-depth analysis, so sadly lacking. Valor and strength and warrior-like equipping would have been helpful in a time when we taught our daughters to be “nice,” as we had been taught, and for equipping sons in what to seek in a woman. Those truths sank in eventually, but how much better might we have equipped our daughters in that era had we known we were to be like valiant warriors?

    1. Thank you for your thoughtful comments always. I too feel that I wished I had really been able to define this earlier and that I had written this post earlier. But I am thankful that I can help encourage a new generation of women.

  2. Luisa, thank you for giving all of the background information to shed greater light on the words used in Proverbs 31. I am asking God to help me become a prayer warrior and I do see how God has positioned me in my role as a woman and wife to commit more of my time to this endeavor. Sometimes being a woman, God can uniquely use you in powerful ways to advance His kingdom. Thank you for encouraging us in this regard, while
    at the same time maintaining a reverent and obedient attitude toward the truth of God’s Word. Blessings!

  3. Great teaching in this post. Thanks so much – it is inspiring! Though I have believed (and try to live) that these things are true, I appreciate the study of the word to KNOW that I have even more ammo for my arguments on this topic.

  4. Luisa, this is very interesting! I am looking forward to doing a thorough study of this word “chayil” myself! Thank you for making me think and rethink this passage of scripture. I also really resonated with your statement that “…a woman who is discouraged is not living to the full potential of her calling…” So much damage is done when we continually push women down. Thank you so much for sharing!

    1. That is great that you will be doing your now study on the word “chayil.” My goal is for women to look into it themselves and hence why I tried to provide links to the resources I used.

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  8. Dear Luisa!

    I loved the first sentence of this blog post.

    You said: “If I want to fruitfully live for God, I need to understand who I am as a Christian, as a person, and as a woman.”

    That’s a great point.

    What you do, and who you write for is important.

    It’s so positive that we women have gotten a new and never before seen opportunity to express ourselves with the Internet.

    Sure, the Proverbs 31 woman was a strong woman 🙂

    After reading your blog post, I came to think of how often we limit ourselves by talking and thinking negatively about who we are.

    Posts like this one help us see the true value when walking with Christ.

    One interesting aspect with the culture surrounding the proverb 31 woman is that she lives in a culture where the man spend their time on café while the women work – a la the culture in Middle East 🙂

    Edna Davidsen

    1. Thank you Edna. Your comment about Middle Eastern culture made me think of verse 23 where it says ,”Her husband is known in the gates when he sits among the elders of the land.” Makes me wonder if what God is was trying to get here is, her husband can sit at the gates with the elders because this woman is working so hard and has everything under control!

  9. That’s funny, Luisa. That verse is the reason I brought the topic up in my comment.

    I believe that there’s so much to learn when taken contemporary culture into account when we seek an understanding of biblical topics.

  10. Luisa, you are so spot on! Not only are we to be strong in physical matters and be able to fight earthly and spiritual battles, but we are strong in mind because we have the mind of Christ! We don’t need to shrink back from living out the fullness of God because of the cultural limitations imposed on us (sometimes by other women!) and the shame dumped on us by wounded people.

    Rise up, women of God! The Father is looking for warrior princesses who have a huge role in guiding others to the truth of who we are in Jesus!

    1. Yes! God has equipped us women to fight earthly and spiritual battles and we must not shrink away from that responsiblity. There is so much for us to do–we just need to step into the roles God gave us.

  11. Mariam BEDIAKO (bediako meaning The warrior has come)

    Thanks so much for this revelation revival and reigning moment for all modern biblical women. I personally have this fight in me I can’t explain but reading this on 30th December 2021, I will certainly pass this information on so we all can grow in Jesus Mighty Name.

  12. Wow… As a husband reading this (I was doing a study on prov 12:4) and it led me here) it stopped me in my tracks.

    I had to take a step back and it literally took my breath away! Never EVER considered the concept to treat my wife the same way I would my military brothers, however that is exactly what we as men need to do!

    I’ve struggled with owning the responsibility of my wife as a women.. I mean after all aren’t we truly responsible for ourselves? If my wife commits a crime surely I don’t pay for it… at least in worldly terms…

    That’s the point… we tend to (subconsciously) default our thinking even the best biblical thoughts to those of what we “know” which is our physical world – secular, seduced.

    Thank you for this. I now have gleaned a deeper understanding of how I need to look at, think about, and act upon my wife.

    She IS my responsibility… and what an honor it is to have that.

    1. Hi Steven, most are my readers are women so I am glad you were willing to read through the article–and that it was helpful. I believe we should all get smarter on what the Word has to say about the opposite sex so thanks for modeling that for us.

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